Referencias bibliográficas

  1. Singh-Manoux A. et al. (2011) Timing of onset of cognitive decline: results from Whitehall II prospective cohort study. BMJ, 343:d7622 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d7622.
  2. Ryan L. et al. (2002) Caffeine reduces time-of-day effects on memory performance in older adults. Psychol Sci, 13:68-71.
  3. Smith A.P. (1994) Caffeine, performance, mood and status of reduced alertness. Pharmacopsychoecologia, 7:75-86.
  4. Smith A.P. (2005) Caffeine in Nutritional Neuroscience, Lieberman H, Kanarek R, Prasad C, eds. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL;pp. 335-359.
  5. Swift C.G. & Tiplady B. (1988) The effects of age on the response to caffeine. Psychopharmacology, 94:29-31.
  6. Rees K. et al. (1999) The influences of age and caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive function. Psychopharmacology;145:181-188.
  7. Hogervorst E. et al. (1998) Caffeine improves memory performance during distraction in middle-aged, but not in young or old subjects. Hum Psychopharmacol, 13:277-284.
  8. Lorist M.M. et al. (1995) Aging, caffeine, and information processing: an event-related potential analysis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 96:453-467.
  9. Jarvis M.J. (1993) Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology, 110:45-52.
  10. Beydoun M.A. et al. (2014) Caffeine and Alcohol Intakes and Overall Nutrient Adequacy Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Performance among U.S. Adults. J Nutr, publicación online previa a su impresión. Disponible en:
  11. Hameleers P.A. et al. (2000) Habitual caffeine consumption and its relation to memory, attention, planning capacity and psychomotor performance across multiple age groups. Hum Psychopharmacol, 15:573-581.
  12. van Hooren S.A. et al. (2005) Influence of cognitive functioning on functional status in an older population: 3- and 6-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 20:883-888.
  13. Cropley V. et al. (2011) Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study. Psychopharmacology, 219(3):737-49.
  14. Santos C. et al. (2010) Caffeine intake and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis, 20 Suppl 1:S187-204.
  15. Arab L. et al. (2013) Epidemiologic Evidence of a Relationship between Tea, Coffee, or Caffeine Consumption and Cognitive Decline. Adv Nutr, vol. 4:115-122.
  16. Johnson-Kozlow M. et al. (2002) Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults. Am J Epidemiol, 156:842-850.
  17. Ritchie K. et al. (2007) The neuroprotective effects of caffeine: a prospective population study (the Three City Study). Neurology, 69:536-545.
  18. Santos C. et al. (2010) Caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline: a cohort study from Portugal. J Alzheimers Dis, 20 Suppl 1:S175-85.
  19. Arab L. et al. (2011) Gender Differences in Tea, Coffee, and Cognitive Decline in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study. J Alzheimers Dis, 2011;27(3):553-66.
  20. van Gelder B.M. et al. (2007) Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study. Eur J Clin Nutr, 61:226-32.
  21. Corley J. et al. (2010) Caffeine consumption and cognitive function at age 70: The Lothian birth cohort 1936 study. Psychosom Med, 72:206-14.
  22. Wu M.S. et al. (2011) Socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. BMC Public Health, 11:22.
  23. Vercambre M.-N. et al. (2013) Caffeine and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Women at High Vascular Risk. J Alzheimers Dis, 35(2):413-21.
  24. Alzheimer Europe (2010) ‘Alzheimer’s disease. Disponible en:
  25. Alzheimer Europe (2009) ‘Who is affected by Alzheimer’s disease?’ Disponible en:
  26. Alzheimer Europe (2010) ‘The impact of Alzheimer’s disease in Europe’. Disponible en:
  27. Alzheimer Europe (2014) ‘Prevalence of dementia in Europe’. Disponible en:
  28. Cao C. et al. (2012) High blood caffeine levels in MCI linked to lack of progression to dementia. J Alzheimers Dis, 30:559-572.
  29. Maia L & de Mendonça A. (2002) Does caffeine intake protect from Alzheimer’s disease? Eur J Neurol, 9:377-82.
  30. Lindsay J. et al. (2002) Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Am J Epidemiol, 156:445-53.
  31. Broe G.A. et al. (1990) A case-control study of Alzheimer’s disease in Australia. Neurology, 40:1698-707.
  32. Tyas S.L. et al. (2001) Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based, longitudinal study in Manitoba, Canada, Int J Epidemiol;30:590-7.
  33. Barranco Quintana J.L. et al. (2007) Alzheimer’s disease and coffee: a quantitative review. Neurol Res, 29:91-5.
  34. Lammi U.K. et al. (1989) Mental disability among elderly men in Finland: prevalence, predictors and correlates. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 80:459-68.
  35. Eskelinen M.H. et al. (2009) Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late-life dementia: a population-based CAIDE study. J Alzheimers Dis, 16:85-91.
  36. Laitala V.S. et al. (2009) Coffee drinking in middle age is not associated with cognitive performance in old age. Am J Clin Nutr, 90:640-6.
  37. Gelber R.P. et al. (2011) Coffee intake in midlife and risk of dementia and its neuropathologic correlates. J Alzheimers Dis, 23:607-15.
  38. Arendash G.W. et al. (2006) Caffeine protects Alzheimer’s mice against cognitive impairment and reduces brain β-amyloid production. Neuroscience, 142:941-52.
  39. Arendash G.W. et al. (2009) Caffeine reverses cognitive impairment and decreases brain amyloid-β levels in aged Alzheimer’s disease mice. J Alzheimers Dis, 17:661-80.
  40. Cao C. et al. (2009) Caffeine suppresses amyloid-β levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice. J Alzheimers Dis, 17:681-97.
  41. Cao C. et al. (2011) Caffeine synergizes with another coffee component to increase plasma GCSF: linkage to cognitive benefits in Alzheimer’s mice. J Alzheimers Dis, 25(2):323-35.
  42. Han M.E. et al. (2009) Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production by caffeine consumption. BMC Neurosci, 10:110.
  43. Wostyn P. et al. (2011) Increased cerebrospinal fluid production as a possible mechanism underlying caffeine’s protective effect against Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Alzheimers Dis, 2011:617420.
  44. Tohda C. et al. (2005) Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network. Neurosignals, 14:34-45.
  45. Tohda C. et al. (1999) Trigonelline-induced neurite outgrowth in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Biol Pharm Bul, 22:679-82.
  46. Kim H.S. et al. (2004) Inhibitory effects of long-term administration of ferulic acid on microglial activation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of beta-amyloid peptide (1-42) in mice. Biol Pharm Bull, 27:120-1.
  47. Cho J.Y. et al. (2005) Inhibitory effects of long-term administration of ferulic acid on astrocyte activation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of beta-amyloid peptide (1-42) in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 29:901-7.
  48. European Parkinson’s Disease Association (2011) ‘EPDA Annual report 2010-2011’. Disponible en:
  49. European Parkinson’s Disease Association (2011) ‘Life with Parkinson’s’. Disponible en:
  50. Nefzger M.D. et al. (1968) A retrospective study of smoking in Parkinson’s disease. Am J Epidemiol, 88:149-158.
  51. Jimenez-Jimenez F.J. et al. (1992) Premorbid smoking, alcohol consumption, and coffee drinking habits in Parkinson’s disease: a case-control study. Mov Disord, 7:339-44.
  52. Fall P.A. et al. (1999) Nutritional and occupational factors influencing the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a case-control study in southeastern Sweden. Mov Disord, 14:28-37.
  53. Hellenbrand W. et al. (1996) Diet and Parkinson’s disease. I. A possible role for the past intake of specific foods. Results from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire in a case-control study. Neurology, 47:636-43.
  54. Webster Ross G. et al. (2000) Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson disease. JAMA, 283:2674-2679.
  55. van der Mark M. et al. 2014, A Case-Control Study of the Protective Effect of Alcohol, Coffee, and Cigarette Consumption on Parkinson Disease Risk: Time-Since-Cessation Modifies the Effect of Tobacco Smoking, PLoS One, published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095297
  56. Hernan M.A. et al. (2002) A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol, 52:276-84.
  57. Costa J. et al. (2010) Caffeine exposure and the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Alzheimers Dis, 20 Suppl 1:S221-38.
  58. Qi H. et al. (2014) Dose–response meta-analysis on coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with risk of Parkinson’s disease. Geriatr Gerontol Int, (2):430-9.
  59. Ascherio A. et al. (2001) Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson’s disease in men and women. Ann Neurol, 50:56-63.
  60. Ascherio A. et al. (2003) Caffeine, postmenopausal estrogen, and risk of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 60:790-5.
  61. Palacios N. et al. (2010) Polymorphisms of caffeine metabolism and estrogen receptor genes and risk of Parkinson’s disease in men and women. Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 16:370-5.
  62. Palacios N. et al. (2012). Caffeine and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease in a Large Cohort of Men and Women. Movement Disorders, publicación online previa a su impresión.
  63. Liu R. et al. (2012) Caffeine intake, smoking, and risk of Parkinson disease in men and women. Am J Epidemiol, 175(11):1200-7.
  64. Postuma R.B. et al. (2012), Caffeine for treatment of Parkinson disease: A randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 79(7): 651–658.
  65. Kuwana Y. et al. (1999) Antiparkinsonian activity of adenosine A2A antagonists in experimental models. Adv Neurol, 80:121-3.
  66. Fenu S. & Morelli M. (1998) Motor stimulant effects of caffeine in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats are dependent on previous stimulation of dopamine receptors: a different role of D1 and D2 receptors. Eur J Neurosci, 10:1878-84.
  67. Chen J.F. et al. (2001) Neuroprotection by caffeine and A(2A) adenosine receptor inactivation in a model of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosci, 21:RC143.
  68. Morelli M. et al. (2009) Adenosine A2A receptors and Parkinson’s disease. Handb Exp Pharmacol, 193:589-615.
  69. Iida M. et al. (1999) Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of ropinirole, a dopamine agonist. Brain Res, 838:51-9.
  70. World Heart Federation, ‘Cardiovascular Health: Stroke’. Disponible en:
  71. Larsson S.C. et al. (2008) Coffee and tea consumption and risk of stroke subtypes in male smokers. Stroke, 39:1681-7.
  72. Larsson S.C. et al. (2011) Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Stroke, 42:908-12.
  73. Lopez-Garcia E. et al. (2009) Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Circulation, 119:1116-23.
  74. Larsson S.C. & Orsini N. (2011) Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol, 174(9):993-1001.
  75. Piriyawat P. et al. (2003) Pilot dose- escalation study of caffeine plus ethanol (caffeinol) in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 34:1242-5.